Urinary schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria from 2006 to 2017

J Vector Borne Dis. 2019 Apr-Jun;56(2):87-91. doi: 10.4103/0972-9062.263721.


Urinary schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma haematobium is very common in Nigeria, with Ebonyi State implicated to have the highest prevalence in the southeastern part of the country. The aim of this review was to estimate the status of urinary schistosomiasis in the State with regards to the elimination goals of World Health Organization (WHO). A comprehensive search of published articles on urinary schistosomiasis in Ebonyi State, Nigeria from 2006 to 2017 was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed and African Journals Online (AJOL) databases. Out of 26 retrieved articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria. The MetaXL software was used to compute the pooled prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using the random effect model and results are presented as forest plot. Based on meta-analysis output, the pooled prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was 26.02% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 17.91-35.04%]. The pooled prevalence was higher before 2014, the year when treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) was started. Of the senatorial zones, Ebonyi North had the highest pooled prevalence of 34.57% (95% CI = 10.50-61.32%). In addition, the prevalence of the disease was higher when all the age groups were sampled (31.33%; 95% CI = 12.75-51.98%) than when only schoolchildren were used as sampling population (25.23%; 95% CI = 15.66-35.93%). The pooled prevalence revealed that despite the mass drug distribution (MDA) of PZQ in the State, there is continued transmission of urinary schistosomiasis. Hence, if the WHO elimination goal of the disease has to be met, focused control and elimination programmes along with intense complementary public-health interventions are necessary.

Keywords: Control; Ebonyi state; Nigeria; Schistosoma haematobium; prevalence; urinary schistosomiasis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthelmintics / therapeutic use
  • Disease Eradication / organization & administration
  • Humans
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Praziquantel / therapeutic use
  • Prevalence
  • Schistosoma haematobium / drug effects
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / drug therapy
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / epidemiology*
  • Schistosomiasis haematobia / urine*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / parasitology*
  • World Health Organization


  • Anthelmintics
  • Praziquantel