Isovaleric acid and avicequinone-C are Chikungunya virus resistance principles in Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa

J Vector Borne Dis. 2019 Apr-Jun;56(2):111-121. doi: 10.4103/0972-9062.263719.


Background & objectives: Oral administration of tender leaf extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla is traditionally known to prevent the chikungunya virus infection. Even with wide usage, the antiviral components in this plant are neither identified nor characterized. This study was carried out with the objectives of profiling the phytocompounds in this plant through LC-MS/MS and to identify the active antiviral constituents and their drug-likeliness through molecular docking.

Methods: Phytocompounds were extracted hydro-alcoholically from powdered plant parts and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Based on mass-to-charge ratio from LC-MS/MS, compounds were identified and used as ligands for molecular docking against chikungunya target proteins. The active principles were subjected to ADME/T analysis to verify their drug-likeliness.

Results: The docking results and ADME/T evaluation showed that the compounds, isovaleric acid and avicequinone- C have good interaction with the protein targets and hence could be the antiviral principles of the selected plant. These compounds presented acceptable drug properties and hence could be carried forward to in vivo studies for drug development.

Interpretation & conclusion: The antiviral properties of G. pentaphylla are known since time-immemorial. This study revealed the probable interactions after the oral administration of tender leaves of Glycosmis in preventing the chikungunya virus infection and paves the path for designing future plant-based drugs.

Keywords: ADME/T; LC-MS/MS; drug development; herbal medicine; in silico; molecular docking.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Chikungunya virus / drug effects*
  • Drug Discovery
  • Hemiterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Pentanoic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Quinones / pharmacology*
  • Rutaceae / chemistry*


  • Hemiterpenes
  • Pentanoic Acids
  • Plant Extracts
  • Quinones
  • avicequinone C
  • isovaleric acid