Caspase-2 is the most evolutionarily conserved member in the caspase family of proteases and is constitutively expressed in most cell types including neurons; however, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here we report that caspase-2 plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive flexibility. We found that caspase-2 deficiency led to deficits in dendritic spine pruning, internalization of AMPA receptors and long-term depression. Our results indicate that caspase-2 degrades Rictor, a key mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) component, to inhibit Akt activation, which leads to enhancement of the GSK3β activity and thereby long-term depression. Furthermore, we found that mice lacking caspase-2 displayed elevated levels of anxiety, impairment in reversal water maze learning, and little memory loss over time. These results not only uncover a caspase-2-mTORC2-Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway, but also suggest that caspase-2 is important for memory erasing and normal behaviors by regulating synaptic number and transmission.