Background: The effect of parathyroidectomy (PTx) timing on serum calcium (Ca) levels and renal functions in renal transplant recipients with severe hyperparathyroidism (HPT) remains unclear. We retrospectively aimed to investigate and compare the clinical data of patients who underwent pre- and post-transplant PTx and elucidated the impact of PTx timing on serum Ca levels and renal graft outcomes after renal transplantation (RTx).
Methods: During January 2000-December 2016, 53 and 55 patients underwent post-transplant PTx (Post-RTx group) and pretransplant PTx (Pre-RTx group), respectively. The serum Ca levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed in both groups.
Results: At the end of the follow-up, the serum Ca levels were significantly higher and the incidence of hypocalcemia was significantly lower in the Pre-RTx group than in the Post-RTx group [9.5 vs. 8.9 mg/dL, P < 0.001; 14.5% vs. 34.0%, P = 0.024]. The decrease in the eGFR 12-36 months after RTx was more significant in the Post-RTx group than in the Pre-RTx group (-13.8% vs. -0.9%; P = 0.001). A logistic regression involving age, sex, dialysis period, and serum parathormone level revealed that post-transplant PTx is an independent risk factor for persistent hypocalcemia at the end of the follow-up (P = 0.034) and for a >20% decrease in the eGFR 12-36 months after RTx (P = 0.029).
Conclusions: In renal transplant candidates with severe HPT, pretransplant PTx should be considered to prevent persistent hypocalcemia and deterioration of the renal graft function.