Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a leading public health problem worldwide. The global estimated prevalence of CKD is 13.4% (11.7-15.1%), and patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) needing renal replacement therapy is estimated between 4.902 and 7.083 million. Through its effect on cardiovascular risk and ESKD, CKD directly affects the global burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The global increase in this disease is mainly driven by the increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and aging. But in some regions, other causes such as infection, herbal and environmental toxins are still common. The large number of deaths for poor access to renal replacement therapy in developing countries, and also large increase of patients with ESKD in future, will produce substantial financial burden for even the most wealthy countries. Cost-effectiveness of preventive strategies to reduce the disease burden should be evaluated in relation to the local economic development and resource. Strategies reducing the cardiovascular risk in CKD still need further evaluation in large trials especially including patients with advanced kidney disease or end-stage kidney disease.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Chronic kidney disease; End-stage kidney disease; Prevalence.