Risk and Blood Pressure Control Rates Across the Spectrum of Coronary Artery Disease in Hypertensive Women: An Analysis from The INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST)

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 Feb;29(2):158-166. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2018.7235. Epub 2019 Aug 12.


Background: Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), the main cause of death in women. While association between the two is frequent, limited data exist regarding the feasibility of blood pressure (BP) management and outcomes in women across the spectrum of CAD. Accordingly, we analyzed patient characteristics, BP control rates, and outcomes among hypertensive women with CAD, enrolled in The INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods: The 11,770 hypertensive women with CAD in INVEST were studied based on presence (n = 3,879) or absence (n = 7,891) of history of myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary revascularization, to evaluate outcomes across risk groups based on severity of CAD. Results: Women with prior MI or revascularization were older (4 years, p < 0.0001), were predominantly white (62% vs. 29%), and had more associated comorbidities than women without these events. At 24 months, JNC VI (sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) BP control rates were lower in women with prior MI or revascularization (57% vs. 64%, p < 0.0001), despite more intensive antihypertensive therapy. The primary outcome (first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke) was also more frequent in women with prior MI or revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-1.74), who were 42% more likely to die (adjusted HR 1.42; 95% CI 1.22-1.64), twice as likely to have a nonfatal MI (adjusted HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.64-3.51), and 56% more likely to have a nonfatal stroke (adjusted HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.1-2.21). Conclusions: In a prospective, multinational cohort of hypertensive women with CAD, those with prior MI or revascularization comprised a group at higher risk for death, nonfatal MI, and nonfatal stroke, and were less likely to have their BP controlled, despite more aggressive therapy. The feasibility and benefit of reducing BP to <130/80 mmHg in women, particularly with more severe CAD, warrant further investigation.

Keywords: blood pressure control; coronary artery disease; hypertension; risk; women.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronary Artery Disease / complications
  • Coronary Artery Disease / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Indoles / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / complications
  • Myocardial Revascularization
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Verapamil / therapeutic use


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Indoles
  • trandolapril
  • Verapamil