Background: Prevalence of migraine, as a chronic neurovascular disorder, was approximately 10.3 and 23.1% among men and women, respectively, mostly in people younger than 40 years old. Migraine is prevalent in different geographic areas worldwide. The present study was designed to compare the impact of intranasal lidocaine 4% and peppermint essential oil drop 1.5% on migraine attacks.
Methods: In this double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 120 adult patients with a diagnosis of migraine based on the International Headache Society criteria were treated with intranasal lidocaine drop 4% or peppermint essential oil drop 1.5% or placebo. Patients expressed their symptoms 5 and 15 min after dripping, and if they still had a headache after 15 min, they were given the second dose. Patients with a second dose of medication, 15 min later recorded their headache rate. All patients recorded their symptoms after 30 min. Symptoms of the patients were followed by a researcher through the phone and in-person after 2 months. Then, the questionnaires were filled.
Results: In the present study, there was a significant difference among groups in headache intensity after treatment (P < 0.001). In 40% of the patients in the peppermint oil and lidocaine groups, the intensity of headache decreased. In the placebo group, fewer patients responded highly to the treatment, whereas 41.5% of patients in the lidocaine group and 42.1% of patients in the peppermint oil group responded to the treatment considerably.
Conclusions: Concerning the findings of the present study, nasal application of peppermint oil caused considerable reduction in the intensity and frequency of headache and relieved majority of patients' pain similar to lidocaine. On the basis of findings of this study, it can be concluded that nasal menthol, such as lidocaine, can be used to relieve migraine headaches.
Keywords: Headache; lidocaine; migraine attacks; peppermint oil.