Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Due to the absence of effective pharmacological and surgical treatments, the identification of early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers is of key importance to improve the survival rate of patients and to develop new personalized treatments. On these bases, the aim of this review article is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the application of molecular biology and proteomics techniques for the identification of novel biomarkers through the analysis of different biological samples obtained from glioblastoma patients, including DNA, microRNAs, proteins, small molecules, circulating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles, etc. Both benefits and pitfalls of molecular biology and proteomics analyses are discussed, including the different mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques, highlighting how these investigation strategies are powerful tools to study the biology of glioblastoma, as well as to develop advanced methods for the management of this pathology.
Keywords: DNA; biomarkers; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; miRNAs; proteins; proteomics.