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The Comprehensive Approach to Preparation and Investigation of the Eu 3+ Doped Hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) Nanocomposites: Promising Materials for Theranostics Application

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The Comprehensive Approach to Preparation and Investigation of the Eu 3+ Doped Hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) Nanocomposites: Promising Materials for Theranostics Application

Katarzyna Szyszka et al. Nanomaterials (Basel).

Abstract

In response to the need for new materials for theranostics application, the structural and spectroscopic properties of composites designed for medical applications, received in the melt mixing process, were evaluated. A composite based on medical grade poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) doped with Eu3+ ions was obtained by using a twin screw extruder. Pure calcium Hap, as well as the one doped with Eu3+ ions, was prepared using the precipitation method and then used as a filler. XRPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction) and IR (Infrared) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the structural properties of the obtained materials. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) was used to assess the Eu3+ ion content on phase transitions in PLLA. The tensile properties were also investigated. The excitation, emission spectra as well as decay time were measured to determine the spectroscopic properties. The simplified Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied and a detailed analysis in connection with the observed structural and spectroscopic measurements was made and described.

Keywords: calcium hydroxyapatite nanopowders; nanocomposites; poly(L-lactide); rare earth ions; twin screw extrusion.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Representative TEM images and a SAED image of the 3 mol% Eu3+:Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM image of composite surface for PLLA/HAp.
Figure 3
Figure 3
X-ray diffraction patterns of PLLA/x mol% Eu3+:HAp composites (where x = 0–5) obtained with the extrusion method.
Figure 4
Figure 4
IR spectra of PLLA/x mol% Eu3+:HAp composites (where x = 0–5) obtained via extrusion in situ.
Figure 5
Figure 5
The first heating (a), cooling (b) and second heating (c) DSC curves of PLLA and PLLA/x mol% Eu3+:HAp composites (where x = 0–5).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Excitation spectra of x mol% Eu3+:HAp nanoparticles (where x = 1–5) incorporated into PLLA composites.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Emission spectra of PLLA/x mol% Eu3+:HAp composites (where x = 0–5) incorporated into poly(L-lactide) composites obtained by using the extrusion method.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Emission kinetics of the Eu3+:Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 nanoparticles embedded into poly(L-lactide) composites obtained by using the extrusion method. Insert: The decay time as a function of Eu3+ ions concentration.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Tensile properties for PLLA/HAp composites: tensile strength (red left axis), strain at break (right axis) and Young’s modulus (right axis).

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