Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymer produced in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants. Although most eudicot and gymnosperm species generate lignins solely via polymerization of p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols (monolignols), grasses additionally use a flavone, tricin, as a natural lignin monomer to generate tricin-incorporated lignin polymers in cell walls. We previously found that disruption of a rice 5-HYDROXYCONIFERALDEHYDE O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (OsCAldOMT1) reduced extractable tricin-type metabolites in rice vegetative tissues. This same enzyme has also been implicated in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, a monolignol that constitutes syringyl lignin polymer units. Here, we further demonstrate through in-depth cell wall structural analyses that OsCAldOMT1-deficient rice plants produce altered lignins largely depleted in both syringyl and tricin units. We also show that recombinant OsCAldOMT1 displayed comparable substrate specificities towards both 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and selgin intermediates in the monolignol and tricin biosynthetic pathways, respectively. These data establish OsCAldOMT1 as a bifunctional O-methyltransferase predominantly involved in the two parallel metabolic pathways both dedicated to the biosynthesis of tricin-lignins in rice cell walls. Given that cell wall digestibility was greatly enhanced in the OsCAldOMT1-deficient rice plants, genetic manipulation of CAldOMTs conserved in grasses may serve as a potent strategy to improve biorefinery applications of grass biomass.