Background: Prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer are two of the most common pathological condition of the prostate to be found on male. Both of these diseases share common pathogenesis involving inflammation of prostatic tissues. Chronic inflammation will induce the release of cytokines, followed by cells injury and tissues damage. One of the cytokines that play a role in prostate pathology is IL-6. The inflammation will also induce the releases of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGFβ-1.
Aim: This study aims to analyse the expression of IL-6 and TGFβ-1, in prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
Material and methods: This is an observational study, using paraffin-embedded tissue samples of prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Samples were obtained from the laboratory of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University, Padang, Indonesia. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the cytokine expression, and a semiqunatitaves measurement according to Immunoreactive score (IRS) was performed for evaluation. For the TGFβ-1, the stromal expression was also analysed by measurement of the stromal stained area. The correlation of cytokine expression to Gleason index score was also analysed in prostate cancer.
Results: The result showed that this study found that TGFβ-1 was detected both in the stromal component as well as epithelial. With the stromal being the dominant site of expression. The stromal TGFβ-1 expression was of significantly higher in prostate hyperplasia compares to prostate cancer (p < 0.05), while the epithelial expression of TGFβ-1 was not found to be significantly different. IL-6 was mostly expressed intracytoplasmic in epithelia. The IL-6 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer compared to hyperplasia. However, there was no significant correlation to found between IL-6 expression to the Gleason Score among prostate cancers.
Conclusion: This study concluded that there were differences in expression of both TGFβ-1 and IL-6 between prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry.
Keywords: Gleason Index; IL-6; Prostate Cancer; Prostate Hyperplasia; TGFβ-1.