Background: Early mortality has plagued the otherwise good outcomes of heart transplantation in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), but perioperative care is improving. This study sought to identify risk factors for 1-year mortality currently and examine the results of patients without those risk factors compared with patients who did not have ACHD (nACHD).
Methods: The United Network of Organ Sharing database was searched for all adult (>17 years of age) heart transplant recipients from 2000 to 2018. They were divided into an early era and a late era. A multivariate analysis identified risk factors for 1-year mortality in the late era. Patients without these risk factors were compared with the nACHD group by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Results: A total of 495 patients with ACHD were identified from 2000 to 2008, and 666 were identified from 2009 to 2018. The recent era had better 1-year survival (P <.001) and overall survival (P = .003) than did the era from 2000 to 2008. Patients with ACHD were different from the nACHD population in age (37 years vs 57 years), body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 (45% vs 66%), incidence of renal dysfunction (23% vs 28%) and liver dysfunction (29% vs 23%), sensitization (38% vs 29%), and ischemic times (3.5 hours vs 3.1 hours). Multivariate analysis identified body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.79), renal dysfunction (HR, 1.85), liver dysfunction (HR, 1.69), and longer ischemic time (HR, 1.46) as risk factors for early mortality. Patients with only 1 of the first 3 categorical risk factors had 1-year survival comparable to that reported in patients with nACHD.
Conclusions: Patients with ACHD had better early and long-term outcomes in the recent era. When only 1 of 3 pretransplant risk factors for early mortality was present, patients had survival equal to that of nACHD patients and perhaps better long-term survival.
Copyright © 2020 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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