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. 2019 Aug 12;7(3):87.
doi: 10.3390/vaccines7030087.

Comparative Immunogenicity of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere Trivalent IIV and LAIV Against Influenza A Viruses in Children

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Free PMC article

Comparative Immunogenicity of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere Trivalent IIV and LAIV Against Influenza A Viruses in Children

Jann Catherine Ang et al. Vaccines (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Both inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) have been recommended for administration to children. Children are a high-risk group for severe influenza, and a major source of transmission. Therefore, prevention of infection by vaccination is particularly important. However, efficacy and immunogenicity of these vaccines are known to vary by season and geographic location. We compared the immunogenicity of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere trivalent IIV and LAIV against influenza A virus in Canadian Hutterite children aged 2 to 17 using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure hemagglutinin-specific serum IgA and mucosal IgA. Both vaccine formulations induced significant increases in HAI titers against H1N1 and H3N2 vaccine strains. Serum IgA titers against H3N2 were significantly boosted by both IIV and LAIV, while only IIV induced a significant increase in serum IgA specific to the H1N1 vaccine strain. While HAI titers correlated with protection conferred by IIV, mucosal IgA titers correlated with protection conferred by LAIV (mucosal IgA titers could not be established as a correlate for IIV due to sample size limitations). IIV and LAIV were previously reported to be equally efficacious in this cohort, although the immunogenicity of IIV was generally superior.

Keywords: antibodies; childhood vaccination; correlates of protection; hemagglutinination inhibition; inactivated influenza vaccine; influenza virus; live-attenuated influenza vaccine; mucosal IgA.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
H1N1 and H3N2 pre/post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titer change by vaccine type. HAI assays were performed against (A) Cal/09 H1N1 and (B) Tex/50 H3N2 viruses. Log2 transformed changes in HAI titer from pre-vaccination to post-vaccination were plotted for each vaccine formulation. Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV), n = 340; inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV), n = 278. Significance of HAI titer change within each vaccine group was evaluated by paired Student t test. Differences between vaccine groups (IIV vs. LAIV) were assessed using Mann–Whitney U Test.
Figure 2
Figure 2
H1 and H3 pre/post-vaccination serum IgA endpoint titer change by vaccine type. Endpoint enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) assays were performed to measure titers of serum-derived IgA using (A) recombinant Cal/09 H1 protein or (B) recombinant Tex/50 H3 protein. Log2 transformed changes in endpoint IgA titer from pre-vaccination to post-vaccination were plotted for each vaccine formulation. LAIV, n = 340; IIV, n = 278. Significance of IgA endpoint titer change within each vaccine group was evaluated by paired Student t test. Differences between vaccine groups (IIV vs. LAIV) were assessed using Mann–Whitney U Test.
Figure 3
Figure 3
H1 and H3 pre/post-vaccination mucosal IgA titer change by vaccine type. ELISA assays were performed to measure titers of mucosal IgA collected by nasal swab using (A) recombinant Cal/09 H1 protein or (B) recombinant Tex/50 H3 protein. Normalized optical density from pre-vaccination to post-vaccination were plotted for each vaccine formulation. LAIV, n = 340; IIV, n = 278. Significance of mucosal IgA titer change within each vaccine group was evaluated by paired Student t test. Differences between vaccine groups (IIV vs. LAIV) were assessed using Mann–Whitney U Test.

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