Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may be involved in diabetes and other insulin-related processes. This study aimed to investigate the associations between H. pylori infection and the risks of type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), diabetic nephropathy, and poor glycemic control. We retrospectively evaluated 16,091 subjects without diabetes at baseline who underwent repeated health examinations. Subjects were categorized according to whether they were seropositive and seronegative for H. pylori infection. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. The serological results were validated using an independent cohort (n = 42,351) based on a histological diagnosis of H. pylori infection. During 108,614 person-years of follow-up, 1338 subjects (8.3%) developed newly diagnosed diabetes, although the cumulative incidence of diabetes was not significantly related to serological H. pylori status. The multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models revealed that H. pylori seropositivity was not significantly associated with diabetes (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.88-1.16; p = 0.854), IGT (HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04; p = 0.566), diabetic nephropathy (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.82-1.21; p = 0.952), or poor glycemic control (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.90-1.22; p = 0.535). Similarly, histopathological findings of H. pylori infection were not significantly associated with diabetes (p = 0.311), diabetic nephropathy (p = 0.888), or poor glycemic control (p = 0.989). The findings from these large Korean cohorts indicate that there does not appear to be a role for past H. pylori infection in the development of diabetes, IGT, diabetic nephropathy, or poor glycemic control.
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Helicobacter pylori; diabetic nephropathy; impaired glucose tolerance; poor glycemic control.