Objective: To determine whether dual energy CT with a combined approach (cDECT) using a plain noncontrast monochromatic CT (pCT), a water-weighted image after iodine removal, and an iodine-weighted image changes the diagnosis and classification of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) after endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in acute ischemic stroke compared to a pCT image alone without separate water and iodine weighting.
Method: During 2012 to 2016, 372 patients at our comprehensive stroke center underwent DECT scans within 36 hours after EVT. Two readers evaluated pCT compared to a second reading with cDECT, establishing the diagnosis of ICH and grading it per the Heidelberg and Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (SITS-MOST) classifications.
Result: Using cDECT changed the ICH diagnosis to contrast staining only in 34% (52 of 152), modified the ICH grade in 10% (15 of 152), and diagnosed initially undetected ICH in 2% (5 of 220). pCT alone had 95% sensitivity, 80% specificity, 66% positive predictive value, 98% negative predictive value, and 85% accuracy for ICH compared to cDECT. Interreader agreement on the presence of ICH increased with cDECT compared to pCT (Cohen κ = 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.69-0.84] vs 0.68 [0.61-0.76]).
Conclusion: cDECT within 36 hours after EVT changes the radiologic report regarding posttreatment ICH in a considerable proportion of patients undergoing EVT compared to pCT alone. This could affect decision-making regarding monitoring, secondary prevention, and prognostication. The cDECT scan could improve the interpretation consistency of high-attenuating changes on post-EVT images.
© 2019 American Academy of Neurology.