Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes such as increased risk for preterm birth and preeclampsia. This state of the science review analyzed recently published meta-analyses and relevant studies that have evaluated the association between vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia or preterm birth. The results suggest that a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth exists. However, the findings of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia were inconclusive, possibly because of the need for supplementation to occur prior to placentation. This may be because of a lack of studies with ethnic minority populations, who are more likely to experience vitamin D deficiency, and inadequate supplementation doses used for treatment of vitamin D deficiency. Health care providers should screen pregnant women at risk for vitamin D deficiency and supplement women accordingly based on their vitamin D status. Lastly, well-designed and standardized clinical trials need to include large cohorts of minority pregnant women to establish the impact of vitamin D supplementation on improving preterm birth and preeclampsia risk in pregnancy.
Keywords: 25(OH)D; preeclampsia; preterm birth; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency.
© 2019 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.