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Review
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Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by NAD + and ADP-Ribosylation

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Review

Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by NAD + and ADP-Ribosylation

Ann-Katrin Hopp et al. Cells.

Erratum in

Abstract

Cells constantly adapt their metabolic pathways to meet their energy needs and respond to nutrient availability. During the last two decades, it has become increasingly clear that NAD+, a coenzyme in redox reactions, also mediates several ubiquitous cell signaling processes. Protein ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that uses NAD+ as a substrate and is best known as part of the genotoxic stress response. However, there is increasing evidence that NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation regulates other cellular processes, including metabolic pathways. In this review, we will describe the compartmentalized regulation of NAD+ biosynthesis, consumption, and regeneration with a particular focus on the role of ADP-ribosylation in the regulation of glucose metabolism in different cellular compartments.

Keywords: ADP-ribosylation; ARTD; Carbohydrate metabolism; NAD+; NAM; NMN; NR; PARP.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no financial interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic overview over the main metabolic hubs comprising the central carbohydrate metabolism. Gycolysis, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are depicted in black (black arrows), while enzymes involved in those processes are depicted in dark blue. NAD+ metabolism, including synthesis and consumption is depicted in green (green descriptions and arrows), while ADP/ATP conversions are depicted in light blue. Glucose-6-phosphate (Glucose-6-P), fructose-6-phosphate (Fructose-6-P), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fructose-1,6-BP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (Glyceraldehyde-3-P), oxaloactetate (OAA), isocitrate (Isoc), a-ketoglutarate (a-KG), succinate (Succ), fumarate (Fum), malate (Mal), hexokinase (HK), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, phosphofructokinase (PFK), aldolase (FBA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor signaling (IRS).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Schematic overview on the functional contribution of cytoplasmic ARTs to carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic pathways are shown as in Figure 1. ADP-ribosyltransferases are depicted in blue, while ADP-ribosylhydrolases are depicted in yellow.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Schematic overview on the functional contribution of mitochondrial ARTs to carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic pathways are shown as in Figure 1. ADP-ribosyltransferases are depicted in blue, while ADP-ribosylhydrolases are depicted in yellow.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Schematic overview on the functional contribution of nuclear ARTs to carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic pathways are shown as in Figure 1.

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