The Association Between Circulating Inflammatory Markers and the Progression of Alzheimer Disease in Norwegian Memory Clinic Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia

Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2020 Jan-Mar;34(1):47-53. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0000000000000342.


Objective: Neuroinflammation may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of the present study was to detect whether increased inflammatory activity at baseline could predict cognitive and functional decline in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD dementia after 2 years.

Methods: Serum samples from 242 memory clinic patients with an aMCI (n=88) or AD dementia (n=154) were analyzed for C-reactive protein and for 14 other inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17a, IL-18, IL-22, IL-33, tumor necrosis factor, cluster of differentiation 40 ligand, interferon-γ, chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL4] by bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Disease progression was measured by the annual increase in the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) and annual decrease in the score on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).

Results: No association between increased levels of the inflammatory markers and change on the CDR-SB or MMSE score was found, but there was a significant difference in baseline IL-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels between aMCI and AD dementia groups.

Conclusion: Increased levels of inflammatory markers were not associated with faster progression as measured by the annual change on the CDR-SB or MMSE score.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / blood
  • Alzheimer Disease / epidemiology*
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / blood
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / epidemiology*
  • Disease Progression*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation* / blood
  • Interleukins / analysis
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mental Status and Dementia Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Norway / epidemiology


  • Biomarkers
  • Interleukins