Plants are under relentless challenge by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes, for whom they provide a resource of living space and nutrients. Upon detection of pathogens, plants carry out multiple layers of defense response, orchestrated by a tightly organized network of hormones. In this review, we provide an overview of the phytohormones involved in immunity and the ways pathogens manipulate their biosynthesis and signaling pathways. We highlight recent developments, including the discovery of a defense signaling molecule, new insights into hormone biosynthesis, and the increasing importance of signaling hubs at which hormone pathways intersect.
Keywords: abscisic acid; auxin; brassinosteroids; cytokinin; defense responses; ethylene; gibberellic acid; hormone crosstalk; jasmonic acid; pathogens; phytohormones; plant hormones; plant immunity; salicylic acid.
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