Proteomics Computational Analyses Suggest that the Antennavirus Glycoprotein Complex Includes a Class I Viral Fusion Protein (α-Penetrene) with an Internal Zinc-Binding Domain and a Stable Signal Peptide

Viruses. 2019 Aug 14;11(8):750. doi: 10.3390/v11080750.


A metatranscriptomic study of RNA viruses in cold-blooded vertebrates identified two related viruses from frogfish (Antennarius striatus) that represent a new genus Antennavirus in the family Arenaviridae (Order: Bunyavirales). Computational analyses were used to identify features common to class I viral fusion proteins (VFPs) in antennavirus glycoproteins, including an N-terminal fusion peptide, two extended alpha-helices, an intrahelical loop, and a carboxyl terminal transmembrane domain. Like mammarenavirus and hartmanivirus glycoproteins, the antennavirus glycoproteins have an intracellular zinc-binding domain and a long virion-associated stable signal peptide (SSP). The glycoproteins of reptarenaviruses are also class I VFPs, but do not contain zinc-binding domains nor do they encode SSPs. Divergent evolution from a common progenitor potentially explains similarities of antennavirus, mammarenavirus, and hartmanivirus glycoproteins, with an ancient recombination event resulting in a divergent reptarenavirus glycoprotein.

Keywords: antennavirus; arenavirus glycoproteins; class I viral fusion protein; hartmanivirus; internal zinc-binding domain; mammarenavirus; reptarenavirus; stable signal peptide.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Arenaviridae / chemistry
  • Arenaviridae / genetics
  • Arenaviridae / metabolism*
  • Arenaviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Arenaviridae Infections / virology
  • Fish Diseases / virology*
  • Phylogeny
  • Protein Domains
  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • Proteomics
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / chemistry*
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / metabolism*
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / chemistry
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Fusion Proteins / metabolism*
  • Zinc / metabolism*


  • Protein Sorting Signals
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Fusion Proteins
  • Zinc