Background: Treatment with nusinersen has demonstrated significant and clinically meaningful benefits in clinical trials in infants and children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
Objective: The objective of this analysis was to characterize the safety of nusinersen across the clinical trial program in infants and children with symptomatic SMA.
Methods: An integrated safety analysis evaluated end of study data from seven completed clinical trials that enrolled infants and children with symptomatic SMA who were treated with intrathecal nusinersen or underwent sham procedures. Two of the studies were conducted in symptomatic infants with infantile-onset SMA (most likely to develop SMA type I or II) and the remaining five in symptomatic children and adolescents with later-onset SMA (have or are most likely to develop SMA type II or III). Safety assessments included incidence of adverse events (AEs), physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory tests (serum chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis), and electrocardiograms.
Results: Data were analyzed from 323 infants and children, including 240 treated with nusinersen (100 with infantile-onset SMA and 140 with later-onset SMA) and 83 who underwent sham procedures (41 infantile-onset, 42 later-onset). Median (range) exposure to nusinersen was 449.0 (6-1538) days (375.9 participant-years). The most common AEs with nusinersen were pyrexia, upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis, vomiting, headache, and constipation. The incidence of serious AEs was lower with nusinersen than with the sham procedure (41% vs. 61%). The overall incidence of respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal AEs was higher in participants with symptomatic infantile-onset SMA than those with symptomatic later-onset SMA and similar in nusinersen- versus sham procedure-treated participants. Rates of post-lumbar puncture syndrome and related events were higher with nusinersen versus sham procedure in later-onset SMA participants. No abnormal patterns or trends in laboratory test results were observed.
Conclusions: Nusinersen demonstrated a favorable safety profile in children with symptomatic infantile- and later-onset SMA. Most reported AEs and serious AEs were consistent with the nature and frequency of events typically seen with SMA or in the context of lumbar puncture procedures.