Structural and social determinants of inequities in violence risk: A review of indicators

J Community Psychol. 2021 May;49(4):878-906. doi: 10.1002/jcop.22232. Epub 2019 Aug 17.


There is disproportionate risk for violence conditioned on inequities due to race, socioeconomic status, gender, and where people live. Consequently, some communities are more vulnerable to violence and its repercussions than other communities. This study aims to share indicators that might be useful for violence prevention researchers interested in measuring structural or social determinants that position communities for differential risk of experiencing violence. An existing database of indicators identified in a previous review was reassessed for measures of factors that shape community structures and conditions, which place people at risk for violence. Indicators of 86 community constructs are reported. These indicators may help to advance the field by offering innovative metrics that can be used to investigate further the structural and social determinants that serve as root causes of inequities in violence risk.

Keywords: indicators; primary prevention; public health; risk; social determinants of health; socioeconomic factors; violence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Social Class*
  • Social Determinants of Health*
  • Social Factors
  • Violence