Tumour endoprostheses have facilitated limb-salvage procedures in primary bone and soft tissue sarcomas, and are increasingly being used in symptomatic metastases of the long bones.The objective of the present review was to analyse articles published over the last three years on tumour endoprostheses and to summarize current knowledge on this topic. The NCBI PubMed webpage was used to identify original articles published between January 2015 and April 2018 in journals with an impact factor in the top 25.9% of the respective category (orthopaedics, multidisciplinary sciences).The following search-terms were used: tumour endoprosthesis, advances tumour endoprosthesis, tumour megaprosthesis, prosthetic reconstruction AND tumour. We identified 347 original articles, of which 53 complied with the abovementioned criteria.Articles were categorized into (1) tumour endoprostheses in the shoulder girdle, (2) tumour endoprostheses in the proximal femur, (3) tumour endoprostheses of the knee region, (4) tumour endoprostheses in the pelvis, (5) (expandable) prostheses in children and (6) long-term results of tumour endoprostheses.The topics of interest covered by the selected studies largely matched with the main research questions stated at a consensus meeting, with survival outcome of orthopaedic implants being the most commonly raised research question.As many studies reported on the risk of deep infections, research in the future should also focus on potential preventive methods in endoprosthetic tumour reconstruction. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:445-459. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180081.
Keywords: advances tumour endoprostheses; bone metastases; bone sarcoma; endoprosthetic reconstruction; outcome; treatment.