Patients often face the challenge of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and lengthy tissue reconstruction after surgery. Herein, human hair-melanosome derivatives (HHMs), comprising keratins and melanins, are developed using a simple "low-temperature alkali heat" method for potentially personalized therapy. The mulberry-shaped HHMs have an average width of ∼270 nm and an average length of ∼700 nm, and the negatively charged HHMs can absorb positively charged Lysozyme (Lyso) to form the HHMs-Lyso composites through electrostatic interaction. These naturally derived biodegradable nanostructures act as exogenous killers to eliminate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection with a high antibacterial efficacy (97.19 ± 2.39%) by synergistic action of photothermy and "Lyso-assisted anti-infection" in vivo. Additionally, HHMs also serve as endogenous regulators of collagen alpha chain proteins through the "protein digestion and absorption" signaling pathway to promote tissue reconstruction, which was confirmed by quantitative proteomic analysis in vivo. Notably, the 13 upregulated collagen alpha chain proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) after HHMs treatment demonstrated that keratin from HHMs in collagen-dependent regulatory processes serves as a notable contributor to augmented wound closure. The current paradigm of natural material-tissue interaction regulates the cell-ECM interaction by targeting cell signaling pathways to accelerate tissue repair. This work may provide insight into the protein-level pathways and the potential mechanisms involved in tissue repair.
Keywords: antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections; biodegradable; collagen alpha chain proteins; human hair; tissue repair.