Higher dietary salt and inappropriate proportion of macronutrients consumption among people with diabetes and other co morbid conditions in South India: Estimation of salt intake with a formula

Diabetes Metab Syndr. Sep-Oct 2019;13(5):2863-2868. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.059. Epub 2019 Jul 30.


Aim: The present study analysed the regular salt and macronutrients consumption of South Indian population with diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction.

Methods: The cross sectional study was performed among 200 subjects, divided into four different groups consisted of control, subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) without any other complications, T2DM subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and T2DM subjects with hypertension (HTN). The dietary salt intake was estimated from 24-h urinary sodium excretion and the amount of macronutrients was calculated using 24-h dietary recall method.

Results: Out of 200 study subjects, only 28 (14%) were consuming salt as per the recommended levels by WHO (i.e., 5-6 g/day). Thirty-eight (19%) subjects were consuming more than 18 g of salt per day, 67 (33.5%) were consuming 12-18 g of salt per day and another 67 (33.5%) were found to be consuming salt in a range of 6-12 g/day. Calorie contribution from the carbohydrates was significantly high compared to the calories from the proteins. Fat consumption and its corresponding energy contribution were also high among HTN group subjects.

Conclusion: Observations of the study point out to the requirement of nationwide intensive and persistent efforts to enhance the public awareness on salt reduction.

Keywords: Dietary protein; Dietary sodium; Renal dysfunction; Type 2 diabetes; Urinary sodium excretion.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Hypertension / pathology
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrients / adverse effects*
  • Prognosis
  • Public Health Practice
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / pathology
  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary / adverse effects*


  • Sodium Chloride, Dietary