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. 2019 Aug 16;11(8):1356.
doi: 10.3390/polym11081356.

Effect of Graphene Oxide Coating on Natural Fiber Composite for Multilayered Ballistic Armor

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Free PMC article

Effect of Graphene Oxide Coating on Natural Fiber Composite for Multilayered Ballistic Armor

Ulisses Oliveira Costa et al. Polymers (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Composites with sustainable natural fibers are currently experiencing remarkably diversified applications, including in engineering industries, owing to their lower cost and density as well as ease in processing. Among the natural fibers, the fiber extracted from the leaves of the Amazonian curaua plant (Ananas erectifolius) is a promising strong candidate to replace synthetic fibers, such as aramid (Kevlar™), in multilayered armor system (MAS) intended for ballistic protection against level III high velocity ammunition. Another remarkable material, the graphene oxide is attracting considerable attention for its properties, especially as coating to improve the interfacial adhesion in polymer composites. Thus, the present work investigates the performance of graphene oxide coated curaua fiber (GOCF) reinforced epoxy composite, as a front ceramic MAS second layer in ballistic test against level III 7.62 mm ammunition. Not only GOCF composite with 30 vol% fibers attended the standard ballistic requirement with 27.4 ± 0.3 mm of indentation comparable performance to Kevlar™ 24 ± 7 mm with same thickness, but also remained intact, which was not the case of non-coated curaua fiber similar composite. Mechanisms of ceramic fragments capture, curaua fibrils separation, curaua fiber pullout, composite delamination, curaua fiber braking, and epoxy matrix rupture were for the first time discussed as a favorable combination in a MAS second layer to effectively dissipate the projectile impact energy.

Keywords: ballistic performance; curaua fibers; epoxy composites; graphene oxide coating.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
General macroscopic aspect of curaua fibers: (a) curaua fibers (CF); (b) graphene oxide coated fibers (GOCF); (c) their 30 vol% epoxy composites.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Multilayer armor system (MAS) mounted: (a) MAS with CF composite and (b) MAS with GOCF composite.
Figure 3
Figure 3
System used for ballistic tests: (a) Shooting support frame filled with clay witness; (b) MAS target ahead of the clay witness; (c) scheme of the system used for ballistic tests [42].
Figure 4
Figure 4
Raman spectra of GO colloid solution.
Figure 5
Figure 5
FTIR spectrum of CF and GOCF fibers.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) curves of CF and GOCF fibers.
Figure 7
Figure 7
DTA curves of CF and GOCF fibers.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of both investigated curaua fibers: (a) non-coated CF; (b) GOCF.
Figure 9
Figure 9
SEM surface images of both fibers: (a) CF; (b) GOCF.
Figure 10
Figure 10
EDS pattern of CF and GOCF fibers: (a) CF; (b) GOCF.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Pullout stress of both curaua fibers, CF and GOCF, versus epoxy embedded length curves.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Depth indentation in clay witness of the reinforced composites with 30 vol%.
Figure 13
Figure 13
View of MAS target before (a,c) and after (b,d) the ballistic test: with second layer of (a,b) 30 vol% CF; (c,d) 30 vol% GOCF.
Figure 14
Figure 14
Surface of fracture of the ceramic tablets: (a) 3000×; (b) 10,000×.
Figure 15
Figure 15
Curaua fiber covered with ceramic fragments.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Fiber breaking of the GOCF composite fracture surfaces.
Figure 17
Figure 17
Fiber pullout of the CF composites.
Figure 18
Figure 18
Matrix rupture of the GOCF Composite.

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