PPARβ/δ recruits NCOR and regulates transcription reinitiation of ANGPTL4

Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Oct 10;47(18):9573-9591. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz685.


In the absence of ligands, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ recruits the NCOR and SMRT corepressors, which form complexes with HDAC3, to canonical target genes. Agonistic ligands cause dissociation of corepressors and enable enhanced transcription. Vice versa, synthetic inverse agonists augment corepressor recruitment and repression. Both basal repression of the target gene ANGPTL4 and reinforced repression elicited by inverse agonists are partially insensitive to HDAC inhibition. This raises the question how PPARβ/δ represses transcription mechanistically. We show that the PPARβ/δ inverse agonist PT-S264 impairs transcription initiation by decreasing recruitment of activating Mediator subunits, RNA polymerase II, and TFIIB, but not of TFIIA, to the ANGPTL4 promoter. Mass spectrometry identifies NCOR as the main PT-S264-dependent interactor of PPARβ/δ. Reconstitution of knockout cells with PPARβ/δ mutants deficient in basal repression results in diminished recruitment of NCOR, SMRT, and HDAC3 to PPAR target genes, while occupancy by RNA polymerase II is increased. PT-S264 restores binding of NCOR, SMRT, and HDAC3 to the mutants, resulting in reduced polymerase II occupancy. Our findings corroborate deacetylase-dependent and -independent repressive functions of HDAC3-containing complexes, which act in parallel to downregulate transcription.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 / genetics*
  • Cell Line
  • Histone Deacetylases / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Ligands
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Multiprotein Complexes / genetics*
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1 / genetics
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2 / genetics
  • PPAR-beta / genetics*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • RNA Polymerase II / genetics
  • Transcription Factor TFIIB / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • ANGPTL4 protein, human
  • Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4
  • Ligands
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • NCOR1 protein, human
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1
  • Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2
  • PPAR-beta
  • Transcription Factor TFIIB
  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA Polymerase II
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • histone deacetylase 3