Adjustable continence therapy (ProACT) for the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Neurourol Urodyn. 2019 Nov;38(8):2051-2059. doi: 10.1002/nau.24135. Epub 2019 Aug 20.


Aims: First, to evaluate the efficacy of adjustable balloon devices or adjustable continence therapy (ProACT) in the treatment for male stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Second, to investigate the safety profile and rates of adverse events associated with the implantation of adjustable balloon devices.

Method: A review of the literature was performed by searching the PubMed database with the most applicable search terms. We narrowed included studies with adult male patients with SUI; outcomes included pads or pad weight per day and quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, as well as safety outcomes.

Results: In total, 19 studies were included with a total of 1264 patients and 4517 patient-years of follow-up data (mean follow-up time 3.6 years). ProACT implantation resulted in an incontinence QOL improvement of 30.8 points from baseline. At baseline, patients on average were using 4.0 pads per day (PPD) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.6-5.4), which was reduced to an average of 1.1 PPD (95% CI: 0.5-1.7) after ProACT implantation. The number of patients that were considered "dry" was 60.2% (95% CI: 54.2%-65.9%) and the number of patients who were found to be either "dry" or improved greater than 50% was 81.9% (95% CI: 74%-87.8%).

Conclusions: Implantation of adjustable balloon devices is efficacious and safe for the treatment of male SUI. Given the minimal invasiveness of the therapy, adjustable balloon devices may be a serious option as a first-line treatment in nonirradiated patients with SUI who are not ideal candidates for the artificial urinary sphincter.

Keywords: minimally invasive therapy; postprostatectomy; stress urinary incontinence.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostatectomy / adverse effects*
  • Quality of Life
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress / etiology
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress / surgery*
  • Urinary Sphincter, Artificial*