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. 2019 Aug 20;14(8):e0221453.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221453. eCollection 2019.

Experimental-numerical Analysis of Added Resistance to Container Ships Under Presence of Wind-Wave Loads

Free PMC article

Experimental-numerical Analysis of Added Resistance to Container Ships Under Presence of Wind-Wave Loads

Wei Wang et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article


Experimental and numerical analyses performed on a scaled-down model of a 1900TEU container-ship are reported herein. Wind-tunnel and towing-tank experiments along with computational-fluid-dynamic simulations were performed to obtain (1) wind-load coefficients for superstructure of container ship at different wind angles under full-load operating conditions; (2) wave resistance of the model sans the superstructure under different wave conditions; and (3) combined wind-wave resistance of the model in the head waves coupled with a fluctuating wind. Wind-tunnel experiments were first performed to determine wind-load coefficients concerning of the superstructure at different wind angles. Subsequently, the obtained wind-load coefficients from the wind tunnel test were compared against numerical and empirically obtained results to validate the applicability of the applied numerical methods. Next, the wave-induced resistance to ship motion was investigated via a series of towing-tank experiments and numerical simulations to analyze the resistance and motion of ship under wavy conditions. Finally, characteristics of the added resistance to ship motion under conditions of combined wind-wave load were analyzed, and the coupling between ship motion and combined wind-wave load was used to investigate the changes in added resistance under different load scenarios. The results reveal that combined wind-wave load causes the resistance to ship motion to exceed the algebraic sum of the corresponding resistances under standalone wind- and wave-load conditions. The additional resistance was observed to be a combined manifestation of resistances induced by ship motion and wave-parameter alterations.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Fig 1
Fig 1. 1900TEU ship model.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Geometry and schematic of the facility of wind tunnel combined with water flume at HIT.
(a) Three-dimensional WTWF geometry; (b) WTWF schematic.
Fig 3
Fig 3
Dual-balance measuring mechanism—(a) High-accuracy six-component strain gauge balance; (b) experimental setup of dual-balance and test model.
Fig 4
Fig 4. Axial coordinate system for describing wind forces acting on ship model.
Fig 5
Fig 5
Different wind angles considered during the wind-tunnel experiment performed on the fully loaded container-ship model—(a) θ = 0°; (b) θ = 45°; (c) θ = 90°; (d) θ = 180°. Case θ = 0° implied wind direction to be aligned with ship bow.
Fig 6
Fig 6
Setup for towing-tank experiments—(a) towing tank and towing-carriage system; (b) 4-component motion-measuring device; (c) 2D/3D wave maker.
Fig 7
Fig 7. Schematic of experimental setup for measuring resistance and motion responses of ship model.
Fig 8
Fig 8
CFD mesh—(a) entire mesh; (b) overset mesh; (c) stern mesh; (d) bow mesh.
Fig 9
Fig 9. Comparison between experimental and calculated values of longitudinal (CX) and transverse (CY) wind-load coefficients.
Fig 10
Fig 10
Numerical streamlines for 1900TEU container ship set at different wind angles—(a) θ = 0°; (b) θ = 20°; (c) θ = 50°; (d) θ = 90°.
Fig 11
Fig 11
Distribution of numerical vortex traces on a 1900TEU container ship set at different wind angles—(a) θ = 0°; (b) θ = 20°; (c) θ = 50°; (d) θ = 90°.
Fig 12
Fig 12
Distribution of numerical wind pressure around a 1900TEU container ship set at different wind angles—(a) θ = 0°; (b) θ = 20°; (c) θ = 50°; (d) θ =90°.
Fig 13
Fig 13. Relationship between resistance and ship speed under calm-water and wave conditions.
Fig 14
Fig 14. Time-history curves for numerical pitch and heave under wave conditions with Fr = 0.26.
Fig 15
Fig 15
Results obtained via numerical simulation of wind and wave loads—(a) Time history of wave surface under isolated wave loads; (b) Time history of wave surface under combined wind–wave loads.
Fig 16
Fig 16. Comparison between resistance offered under combined wind–wave loads and that offered under isolated wave and wind loads.
Fig 17
Fig 17
Results obtained for case involving combined wind–wave loads—(a) Time history of ship pitch; (b) Time history of ship heave.
Fig 18
Fig 18
The relative frequency counter of pitch value (a. λ/L = 0.25; c. λ/L = 0.50), and the frequency domain curve after FFT of time history pitch (b. λ/L = 0.25; d. λ/L = 0.50).
Fig 19
Fig 19
The relative frequency counter of heave value (a. λ/L = 0.25; c. λ/L = 0.50), and the frequency domain curve after FFT of time history heave value (b. λ/L = 0.25; d. λ/L = 0.50).
Fig 20
Fig 20. Pitching torque applied by fluctuating wind loads on the ship.
Fig 21
Fig 21. Comparison between ship resistance obtained using free and fixed models in presence of combined wind–wave loads.
Fig 22
Fig 22. VOF phase diagrams and wave profiles on the hull corresponding to different wavelength cases.
Fig 23
Fig 23. Ship and free surface interaction phenomenon diagrams corresponding to different wavelength cases.
Fig 24
Fig 24. Pressure curves at ship bow under different load conditions.
Fig 25
Fig 25. Wave elevation contour maps under different operating conditions.
Left: λ/L = 0.25; Right: λ/L = 0.50.

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Grant support

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51379043, 51709060, 41176074), the Equipment pre research project of china (Grant No. 41407010501).