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Comparative Study
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Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Gamma-Irradiated Mutant Cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium

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Comparative Study

Comparative Analysis of Phytochemical Composition of Gamma-Irradiated Mutant Cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium

Jaihyunk Ryu et al. Molecules.

Abstract

The flowers of chrysanthemum species are used as a herbal tea and in traditional medicine. In addition, members of the genus have been selected to develop horticultural cultivars of diverse floral colors and capitulum forms. In this research, we investigated the phytochemical composition of eight gamma-irradiation mutant cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium and their original cultivars. The mutant chrysanthemum cultivars were generated by treatment with various doses of 60Co gamma irradiation of stem cuttings of three commercial chrysanthemum cultivars as follows: 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate' (50Gy), 'ARTI-Purple Lady' (30 Gy), and 'ARTI-Yellow Star' (50 Gy) derived from 'Noble Wine'; 'ARTI-Red Star' (50 Gy) and 'ARTI-Rising Sun' (30 Gy) from 'Pinky'; 'ARTI-Purple' (40 Gy) and 'ARTI-Queen' (30 Gy) from 'Argus'; and 'ARTI-Rollypop' (70 Gy) from 'Plaisir d'amour'. Quantitative analysis of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids in the flowers of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars was performed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESIMS). Essential oils from the flowers of these cultivars were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady', 'ARTI-Purple', and 'ARTI-Queen' showed higher total amounts of flavonoid and phenolic acid compared with those of the respective original cultivars. The mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Dark Chocolate', 'ARTI-Purple Lady' and 'ARTI-Purple', which produce purple to pink petals, contained more than two-times higher amounts of anthocyanins compared with those of their original cultivars. Of the mutant cultivars, 'ARTI-Yellow Star' in which petal color was changed to yellow, showed the greatest accumulation of carotenoids. Ninety-nine volatile compounds were detected, of which hydrocarbons and terpenoids were abundant in all cultivars analyzed. This is the first report that demonstrated the phytochemical analysis of novel chrysanthemum cultivars derived from C. morifolium hydrid using HPLC-DAD-ESIMS and GC-MS. These findings suggest that the selected mutant chrysanthemum cultivars show potential as a functional source of phytochemicals associated with the abundance of health-beneficial components, as well as good source for horticulture and pigment industries.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum morifolium; GC-MS; HPLC-DAD-ESIMS; anthocyanin; asteraceae; carotenoid; flavonoid; gamma irradiation; phenolic acid; volatile compound.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Twelve Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivars. (a) Group I: the mutant cultivars ‘ARTI-Purple Lady’ (30 Gy), ‘ARTI-Yellow Star’ (50 Gy), ‘ARTI-Dark Chocolate’ (50 Gy) derived from the original cultivar ‘Noble Wine’; (b) Group II: the mutant cultivars ‘ARTI-Red Star’ (50 Gy) and ‘ARTI-Rising Sun’ (30 Gy) derived from the original cultivar ‘Pinky’; (c) Group III: the mutant cultivars ‘ARTI-Purple’ (40 Gy) and ‘ARTI-Queen’ (30 Gy) derived from the original cultivar ‘Argus’; (d) Group IV: the mutant cultivars ‘ARTI-Rollypop’ (70 Gy) from the original cultivar ‘Plaisir d’amour’.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Structures of the standard materials. (a) Flavonoids; (b) phenolic acids; (c) anthocyanins; (d) carotenoids.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Relative contents (%) of volatile compounds released from the flowers of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars. (a) Group I: ‘Noble Wine’, ‘ARTI-Dark Chocolate’, ‘ARTI-Purple Lady’, and ‘ARTI-Yellow Star’; (b) Group II: ‘Pinky’, ‘ARTI-Red Star’, and ‘ARTI-Rising Sun’; (c) Group III: ‘Argus’, ‘ARTI-Purple’, and ‘ARTI-Queen’; (d) Group IV: ‘Plaisir d’amour’ and ‘ARTI-Rollypop’. NI: not identified.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Dendrogram from cluster analysis of volatile components of the 12 chrysanthemum cultivars using the average linkage clustering method.

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