Introduction: Hip resurfacing (HRA) requires a new standardised radiographic evaluation protocol. Evaluation of acetabular components is similar to total hip arthroplasty (THA) but femoral components require different criteria. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new femoral zonal system for radiographic HRA assessment in identifying clinical problems.
Methods: A new proximal femoral zonal system divides implant-cement-bone interfaces at head and neck into 7 DeSmet zones. 611 in situ and 100 revised HRA were assessed for component positioning, borderline findings (reactive lines, cortical thickening, cancellous condensation) or sinister findings (lucent lines, bone resorption, osteolysis). Findings were correlated with gender, size, implant survival, clinical scores, metal ions, and adverse soft tissue reactions (ALTR).
Results: Radiological changes were found in 265 hips (37.3%), 154 sinister (21.7%) and 111 borderline (15.6%). 84% of revisions had sinister findings versus 11.4% of in situ HRA (p < 0.001). The mean number of abnormal acetabular and femoral zones was 3.3 in revised compared to 0.6 in situ HRA (p < 0.001). Sinister findings were associated with female gender, lower clinical scores, smaller sizes or ASR design (all: p < 0.001). Metal ions were higher with sinister (p < 0.001) and borderline (p < 0.01) findings compared to normal radiographs. Pathological findings in ⩾4 zones had a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 94.2% (AUC = 0.898) in detecting hips with ALTR (odds ratio = 49).
Conclusion: In order to accurately evaluate progressive radiographic changes in HRA, specific zones have been established around the femoral component. There was a high correlation between radiographic findings and outcome measures. 84% of problematic hips and 90.4% of proven ALTR had sinister changes.
Keywords: Hip resurfacing; adverse local tissue reactions; radiographic evaluation; zonal system.