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Composition and Content of Phenolic Acids and Avenanthramides in Commercial Oat Products: Are Oats an Important Polyphenol Source for Consumers?

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Composition and Content of Phenolic Acids and Avenanthramides in Commercial Oat Products: Are Oats an Important Polyphenol Source for Consumers?

Gulten Soycan et al. Food Chem X.

Abstract

Oats contain a range of phenolic acids and avenanthramides which may have health benefits. Analysis of 22 commercial oat products (oat bran concentrate, oat bran, flaked oats, rolled oats and oatcakes) using HPLC-DAD detected eleven bound and thirteen free + conjugated phenolic acids and avenanthramides. The oat products (excluding concentrate) provided between 15.79 and 25.05 mg total phenolic acids (9.9-19.33 mg bound, 4.96-5.72 mg free + conjugated) and between 1.1 and 2 mg of avenanthramides in a 40 g portion while an 11 g portion of oat concentrate provided 16.7 mg of total phenolic acids (15.17 mg bound, 1.53 mg free + conjugated) and 1.2 mg of avenanthramides. The compositions and concentrations of the components in the different products were broadly similar, with the major component being ferulic acid (58-78.1%). The results show that commercial oat products are a source of phenolic acids and avenanthramides for consumers.

Keywords: Avenanthramides; Ferulic acid; Oat bran; Oat cakes; Oat products; Oats; Phenolic acids.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Chromatogram of phenolic acid and avenanthramide standards at 280 nm (A) and representative chromatograms of bound phenolic acids (B) and free + conjugated phenolic acids oat from sample 3 (Table 1) for at 280 nm (C). Compounds were identified based on retention time and absorbance spectra (Supplementary Table 1): 1, gallic acid; 2, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid; 3, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; 4, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid; 5, caffeic acid; 6, vanillic acid; 7; 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde; 8, homovanillic acid; 9, syringic acid; 10, p-coumaric acid; 11, vanillin; 12, salicylic acid; 13, ferulic acid; 14, syringaldehyde; 15, sinapic acid; 16, 3-5, dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid; 17, o-coumaric acid; 18, avenanthramide C; 19, avenanthramide A; 20, avenanthramide B.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
The amounts of total, conjugated + free and bound phenolic acids (A), ferulic acid (B) and total avenanthramides (C) in oat products including oat bran, oat bran concentrate, flaked oats, rolled oats and oatcake. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. n indicates the number of each product analysed. FW, fresh weight.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Principal component analysis of the contents of bound phenolic acids in different oat products. A, C and E are score plots and B, D and F the corresponding loading plots. Letters on loading plots represent phenolic acids: A, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid; B, caffeic acid; C, vanillic acid; D, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde; E, syringic acid; F, p-coumaric acid; g, vanillin; h, ferulic acid; I, sinapic acid.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Principal component analysis of the contents of free + conjugated phenolic acids and avenanthramides in different oat products. A, C and E are score plots and B, D and F the corresponding loading plots. Letters on loading plots represent phenolic acids: A, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid; B, caffeic acid; C, vanillic acid; D, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde; E, syringic acid; F, p-coumaric acid; g, Vanillin; h, Ferulic acid; I, sinapic acid; J, avenanthramide C; K, avenanthramide A; L, avenanthramide B.

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