Penetration Depth in Nanoparticles Incorporated Radiofrequency Hyperthermia into the Tissue: Comprehensive Study with Histology and Pathology Observations

IET Nanobiotechnol. 2019 Aug;13(6):634-639. doi: 10.1049/iet-nbt.2019.0066.


In present study, the effective penetration of radiofrequency (RF) induced gold decorated iron oxide nanoparticles (GS@IONPs) hyperthermia was investigated. The effective penetration depth of RF also the damage potency of hyperthermia was evaluated during histopathology observations which were done on the chicken breast tissue and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models. The thermal damages are well- documented in our previous cellular study which was engaged with potency of RF hyperthermia in Epithelial adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and fibroblast (L-929) cells deaths [1]. In recent work, PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were used as base platform for gold magnetic nanoparticles (GS@IONPs) formation. The 144.00015 MHz, 180W RF generator was applied for stimulating the nanoparticles. The chicken breast tissue and the hepatocellular tumor model was considered in the experimental section. In histology studies, the structural changes also the effective penetration depth of RF induced nanoparticles was observed through microscopic monitoring of the tissue slices in histology observations (Gazi medical school). The highest damage level was seen in 8.0 µm tissue slices where lower damages were seen in depth of 1.0 cm and more inside tissue. The histology observations clarified the effective penetration depth of RF waves and irreversible damages in the 2.0 cm inside the tissue.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology
  • Chickens
  • Drug Liberation
  • Gold / chemistry
  • Gold / pharmacokinetics*
  • Histological Techniques / methods
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Metal Nanoparticles* / chemistry
  • Radio Waves*
  • Radiofrequency Therapy
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Gold