Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A Comparative Assessment Based on Criteria Established by the International Diabetes Federation, World Health Organisation and National Cholesterol Education Program

J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 19;12(1):55-62. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.0048. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare the widely accepted and used diagnostic criteria for MetS established by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), World Health Organisation (WHO) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII).

Methods: We conducted a descriptive, cross sectional study including T1D patients between 8-18 years of age. The three sets of criteria were used to determine the prevalence of MetS and findings compared. Risk factors related to MetS were extracted from hospital records.

Results: The study included 200 patients with T1D (52% boys). Of these, 18% (n=36) were overweight/obese (body mass index percentile ≥85%). MetS prevalence was 10.5%, 8.5% and 13.5% according to IDF, WHO and NCEP criteria, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, family history of T1D and T2D, pubertal stage, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c levels and daily insulin doses between patients with or without MetS. In the overweight or obese T1D patients, the prevalence of MetS was 44.4%, 38.8% and 44.4% according to IDF, WHO and NCEP-ATPIII criteria, respectively.

Conclusion: Obesity prevalence in the T1D cohort was similar to that of the healthy population of the same age. Prevalence of MetS was higher in children and adolescents with T1D compared to the obese population in Turkey. The WHO criteria include microvascular complications which are rare in childhood and the NCEP criteria do not include a primary criterion while diagnosing non-obese patients according to waist circumference as MetS because the existence of diabetes is considered as a direct criterion. Our study suggests that IDF criteria which allows the diagnosis of MetS with obesity and have accepted criteria for the childhood are more suitable for the diagnosis of MetS in children and adolescents with T1D.

Keywords: prevalence; Type 1 diabetes; metabolic syndrome; double diabetes.