The huge prognostic difference between early and late stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a challenging diagnostic problem. Alpha-fetoprotein is the mostly widely used biomarker for HCC used in the clinic, however it's sensitivity and specificity of is not optimal. The development and application of multiple biotechnologies, including next generation sequencing, multiple "omics" data, that include genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics has been used for HCC diagnostic biomarker screening. Effective biomarkers/panels/models have been identified and validated at different clinical levels. A large proportion of these have a good diagnostic performance for HCC, especially for early HCC. In this article, we reviewed the various HCC biomarkers derived from "omics" data and discussed the advantages and disadvantages for diagnosis HCC.
Keywords: Circulating tumor DNA; Circulating tumor cells; Diagnosis; Exosomes; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Metabolomics; Protein; RNA.