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. 2017 Feb 21;4(1):32-46.
doi: 10.3934/genet.2017.1.32. eCollection 2017.

A Search for the Common Ground Between Tic; Obsessive-compulsive and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Part I, Tic Disorders

Free PMC article

A Search for the Common Ground Between Tic; Obsessive-compulsive and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Part I, Tic Disorders

Jarrett Barnhill et al. AIMS Genet. .
Free PMC article


This article is the first of four articles designed to explore the complex interrelationship between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); Obsessive compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD) and Tic Disorders/Tourette's Syndrome (TD/TS). We begin with an overview TD/TS and follow-up with reviews of OCRD and ASD. The final article in this series represents a synthesis of the neurobiological and genetic markers shared by patients presenting with all three syndromes. The goal is to describe the complex endophenotype of these patients in an effort to better define gene markers that underlie these heterogeneous clinical syndromes. Tic disorders (TD) are a collection of hyperkinetic movements that begin in early childhood. Tics are transient for most affected preschool children but a subgroup development persistent movements or progress to develop Tourette Syndrome (TS). TDs as a group display high heritability rates but definitive gene markers still elude us. The difficulty defining genetic markers is in large part due to the diverse neurodevelopmental trajectory, changing topography and typology, development of a broad spectrum of neurocognitive and behavioral complications, and a mixed pattern of psychiatric comorbidities.

Keywords: Tics; endophenotypes; genetics; movement disorders; neurobiology.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest: The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

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