Control of rice pre-harvest sprouting by glutaredoxin-mediated abscisic acid signaling

Plant J. 2019 Dec;100(5):1036-1051. doi: 10.1111/tpj.14501. Epub 2019 Sep 25.


Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the major problems in cereal production worldwide, which causes significant losses of both yield and quality; however, the molecular mechanism underlying PHS remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a dominant PHS mutant phs9-D. The corresponding gene PHS9 encodes a higher plant unique CC-type glutaredoxin and is specifically expressed in the embryo at the late embryogenesis stage, implying that PHS9 plays some roles in the late stage of seed development. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that PHS9 could interact with OsGAP, which is an interaction partner of the abscicic acid (ABA) receptor OsRCAR1. PHS9- or OsGAP overexpression plants showed reduced ABA sensitivity in seed germination, whereas PHS9 or OsGAP knock-out mutant plants showed increased ABA sensitivity in seed germination, suggesting that PHS9 and OsGAP acted as negative regulators in ABA signaling during seed germination. Interestingly, the germination of PHS9 and OsGAP overexpression or knock-out plant seeds was weakly promoted by H2 O2 , implying that PHS9 and OsGAP could affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling during seed germination. These results indicate that PHS9 plays an important role in the regulation of rice PHS through the integration of ROS signaling and ABA signaling.

Keywords: ABA signaling; ROS signaling; glutaredoxin; pre-harvest sprouting; rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abscisic Acid / metabolism
  • Abscisic Acid / pharmacology*
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / genetics
  • GTPase-Activating Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / genetics
  • Germination / drug effects
  • Germination / genetics*
  • Glutaredoxins / genetics*
  • Glutaredoxins / metabolism
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology
  • Oryza / drug effects
  • Oryza / genetics*
  • Oryza / growth & development
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Protein Binding
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Seedlings / drug effects
  • Seedlings / genetics*
  • Seedlings / growth & development
  • Seeds / drug effects
  • Seeds / genetics*
  • Seeds / growth & development
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Time Factors


  • GTPase-Activating Proteins
  • Glutaredoxins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Abscisic Acid
  • Hydrogen Peroxide