The family of ribosomal proteins S1 contains about 20% of all bacterial proteins including the S1 domain. An important feature of this family is multiple copies of structural domains in bacteria, the number of which changes in a strictly limited range from one to six. In this study, the automated exhaustive analysis of 1453 sequences of S1 allowed us to demonstrate that the number of domains in S1 is a distinctive characteristic for phylogenetic bacterial grouping in main phyla. 1453 sequences of S1 were identified in 25 out of 30 different phyla according to the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. About 62% of all records are identified as six-domain S1 proteins, which belong to phylum Proteobacteria. Four-domain S1 are identified mainly in proteins from phylum Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Records belonging to these phyla are 33% of all records. The least represented two-domain S1 are about 0.6% of all records. The third and fourth domains for the most representative four- and six-domain S1 have the highest percentage of identity with the S1 domain from polynucleotide phosphorylase and S1 domains from one-domain S1. In addition, for these groups, the central part of S1 (the third domain) is more conserved than the terminal domains.