Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 95 (10)

Inevitable Future: Space Colonization Beyond Earth With Microbes First

Affiliations

Inevitable Future: Space Colonization Beyond Earth With Microbes First

Jose V Lopez et al. FEMS Microbiol Ecol.

Abstract

Based on modern microbiology, we propose a major revision in current space exploration philosophy and planetary protection policy, especially regarding microorganisms in space. Mainly, microbial introduction should not be considered accidental but inevitable. We hypothesize the near impossibility of exploring new planets without carrying and/or delivering any microbial travelers. In addition, although we highlight the importance of controlling and tracking such contaminations-to explore the existence of extraterrestrial microorganisms-we also believe that we must discuss the role of microbes as primary colonists and assets, rather than serendipitous accidents, for future plans of extraterrestrial colonization. This paradigm shift stems partly from the overwhelming evidence of microorganisms' diverse roles in sustaining life on Earth, such as symbioses and ecosystem services (decomposition, atmosphere effects, nitrogen fixation, etc.). Therefore, we propose a framework for new discussion based on the scientific implications of future colonization and terraforming: (i) focus on methods to track and avoid accidental delivery of Earth's harmful microorganisms and genes to extraterrestrial areas; (ii) begin a rigorous program to develop and explore 'Proactive Inoculation Protocols'. We outline a rationale and solicit feedback to drive a public and private research agenda that optimizes diverse organisms for potential space colonization.

Keywords: Mars; colonization; microorganisms; planetary protection policy; solar system.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Potential trajectory for how terraforming, PIPs and other related microbiologically focused methods can be applied in a concerted effort to colonize the solar system. A long period of rigorous study and experimentation on Earth prior to extraterrestrial releases is thus expected.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Albins MA, Hixon MA. Worst case scenario: potential long-term effects of invasive predatory lionfish (Pteroisvolitans) on Atlantic and Caribbean coral-reef communities. Environ Biol Fishes. 2013;96:1151–7.
    1. Ben Said S, Or D. Synthetic microbial ecology: engineering habitats for modular consortia. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1125. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bjork JR, O'Hara R, Ribes M et al. . The dynamic core microbiome: structure, dynamics and stability. 2018: Preprint at bioRxiv: 10.1101/137885-2018. - DOI
    1. Blaustein RA, McFarland AG, Maamar SB et al. . Pangenomic approach to understanding microbial adaptations within a model built environment, the International Space Station, relative to human hosts and soil. MSystems. 2019;4:e00281–18. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Bosch TCG, McFall-Ngai MJ. Metaorganisms as the new frontier. Zoology. 2011;114:185–90. - PMC - PubMed
Feedback