Background: Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease.
Objective: We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease.
Methods: We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; β-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores.
Results: We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress.
Conclusions: We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.
Keywords: Asthma; air pollution; allergic sensitization; antioxidants; nutrients; oxidative balance; oxidative stress; pro-oxidants.
Copyright © 2019 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.