Background: Treatment of the older diabetic individual comprises a therapeutic challenge. Currently little scientific evidence exists depicting the best approach to type 2 diabetes treatment in this growing sub-population of patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of a modified plant-based Mediterranean diet ("vegeterranean" diet), circuit resistance training (CRT) and empagliflozin, separately or in combination, on body composition and physical function in older subjects with type 2 diabetes. The rationale for this study is to assess three interventions associated with a negative energy/caloric balance (increased caloric use in exercise, caloric restriction in the "vegeterranean" diet and caloric wasting by glycosuria with empagliflozin), their interaction and effect on body composition and physical function.
Methods: One hundred and twenty men and women ≥65 years of age with type 2 diabetes, and low levels of physical activity will be randomized (1:1:1 manner, gender stratified) for 10 weeks to one of 3 parallel arms: CRT consisting of 3 home sessions/week; ad-libitum plant-based Mediterranean diet (limited consumption of eggs, dairy and fish, avoidance of red meat and poultry) or empagliflozin 10 mg/day. After 10 weeks CRT will be added to the empagliflozin and diet arms for an additional 10 weeks. Allocation concealment and blinding of primary outcome assessors will be implemented. Efficacy will be determined by assessment of lean body mass, body weight, frailty and functional status, sarcopenia, HbA1c and quality of life questionnaires. Safety will be evaluated by routine monitoring of adverse events. This study was approved by the Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Institutional Review Board.
Discussion: The combination and comparison of these diverse interventions to metabolic control may lead to better understanding of their mechanism of action with potential clinical implications in older individuals. Also, this study will provide evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions on delaying the progression from diabetes to sarcopenia and/or frailty.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov PRS: NCT03560375 . Last registration date (last update): 06/06/2018. The trial was a-priori registered before actual recruitment of subjects.
Keywords: Diabetes; Frailty; Muscle function; Muscle mass; Sarcopenia; Weight loss.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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