Evaluation of Treatment Response in Prostate Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Using 11C-choline PET/CT Findings

Acta Med Okayama. 2019 Aug;73(4):341-347. doi: 10.18926/AMO/56936.


We investigated the effectiveness of 11C-choline-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for evaluating treatment response in patients with prostate cancer or renal cell carcinoma. We performed 34 11C-choline PET/CT scans before/after a combined total of 17 courses of treatment in 6 patients with prostate cancer and 2 with renal cell carcinoma. The 17 treatments including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, radium-223, molecular target therapy, radiofrequency ablation, transcatheter arterial embolization, and cancer immunotherapy yielded 1 (5.9%) complete metabolic response (CMR), 3 (17.6%) partial metabolic responses (PMRs), 2 (11.8%) stable metabolic diseases (SMDs), and 11 (64.7%) progressive metabolic diseases (PMDs). Target lesions were observed in bone (n=14), lymph nodes (n=5), lung (n=2), prostate (n=2), and pleura (n=1), with CMR in 4, PMR in 10, SMD in 8 and PMD in 2 lesions. SUVmax values of the target lesions before and after treatment were 7.87±2.67 and 5.29±3.98, respectively, for a mean reduction of -35.4±43.6%. The response for the 8 prostate cancer-treatment courses was PMD, which correlated well with changes in serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (7 of 8 cases showed increased PSA). 11C-choline-PET/CT may be an effective tool for detecting viable residual tumors and evaluating treatment response in prostate cancer and renal cell carcinoma patients.

Keywords: 11C-choline PET/CT; prostate cancer; renal cell carcinoma; treatment response.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy*
  • Choline
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography / methods*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Carbon-11
  • Choline