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Review
. 2019 Aug 7;10:1792.
doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01792. eCollection 2019.

Protein-Protein Interactions in Candida albicans

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Free PMC article
Review

Protein-Protein Interactions in Candida albicans

Floris Schoeters et al. Front Microbiol. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Despite being one of the most important human fungal pathogens, Candida albicans has not been studied extensively at the level of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and data on PPIs are not readily available in online databases. In January 2018, the database called "Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)" that contains the most PPIs for C. albicans, only documented 188 physical or direct PPIs (release 3.4.156) while several more can be found in the literature. Other databases such as the String database, the Molecular INTeraction Database (MINT), and the Database for Interacting Proteins (DIP) database contain even fewer interactions or do not even include C. albicans as a searchable term. Because of the non-canonical codon usage of C. albicans where CUG is translated as serine rather than leucine, it is often problematic to use the yeast two-hybrid system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study C. albicans PPIs. However, studying PPIs is crucial to gain a thorough understanding of the function of proteins, biological processes and pathways. PPIs can also be potential drug targets. To aid in creating PPI networks and updating the BioGRID, we performed an exhaustive literature search in order to provide, in an accessible format, a more extensive list of known PPIs in C. albicans.

Keywords: BioGRID; Candida albicans; Candida two-hybrid system; S. cerevisiae; protein-protein interactions; yeast two-hybrid system.

Figures

FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1
Schematic representation of the C2H system. (A) When no bait protein is attached to the DBD no interaction is possible and no transcription will take place. (B) Represents a situation in which no prey is attached to the AD leading to no transcription. In (C) both a prey and bait are present, but they do not interact so no transcription happens. Situation (D) depicts the interaction between a prey and bait protein thus leading to recruitment of RNA polymerase II and subsequent transcription. A common problem is the auto-activation by bait proteins. It is thus always essential to test auto-activation using the setup seen in part B.
FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2
Basic schematic representation of the cAMP-PKA pathway (green) and three MAPK pathways in Candida albicans which are important for morphogenesis, adaptation to stress and survival. The cell integrity pathway (also known as PKC pathway) is depicted in orange, the HOG pathway is shown in blue and the CEK1 mediated pathway (also known as SVG pathway) is represented in purple. Pathways depicted here are an oversimplified version. A direct interaction between Msb2 and Cst20 (van Wijlick et al., 2016) is for example not depicted here. For a more in depth overview see Refs. (Biswas et al., 2007; de Dios et al., 2010; Sudbery, 2011; Huang, 2012; Noble et al., 2017; Burch et al., 2018). Notice also the arrow between Ste11 and Pbs2. In yeast the Sho1 branch plays a role in osmotic stress signaling to Hog1 (Hohmann, 2002). However, in C. albicans this does not seem to be the case as Ssk2 is the only MAPKKK signaling to Hog1 (Cheetham et al., 2007; Román et al., 2009). Arrows in green depict physical interactions between two proteins that have already been demonstrated in C. albicans. Arrows in black are Protein-protein interactions not yet demonstrated in C. albicans. See text for more details.

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