The prevalence of food allergy has been increasing over the past few decades at an alarming rate with peanut allergy affecting about 2% of children. Both oral immunotherapy (OIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) have shown promise as a treatment option for peanut allergy. Immunotherapy induces desensitization and reduces the risk of reaction during accidental ingestion and may also enable those who are successfully desensitized to include the food allergen in their diet. OIT has been very well studied and has been found to be more efficacious that SLIT with an acceptable safety profile. However, SLIT is associated with fewer side effects. Studies indicate that a combination of SLIT and OIT may together induce a significant increase in challenge thresholds with fewer adverse events. More head-to-head clinical trials that direct compare OIT and SLIT as well as SLIT and OIT combination studies are warranted.
Keywords: food allergy; oral immunotherapy; peanut allergy; sublingual immunotherapy.