[Comparison of chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and domestic silkworm cocoon by UHPLC-MS technology]

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2019 Aug 25;35(8):1546-1556. doi: 10.13345/j.cjb.190027.
[Article in Chinese]

Abstract

Identifying and comparing the chemical constituents of wild silkworm cocoon and silkworm cocoon is of great significance for understanding the domestication of silkworm. In this study, we used high temperature and high pressure and methanol-water system to extract cocoon chemical constituents. We used UHPLC-MS to identify and compare cocoon chemical constituents of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains. The cocoon metabolic fingerprints of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Dazao and Haoyue strains were obtained by using the UHPLC-MS in the positive ion mode and negative ion mode. By annotation, we found that cocoon chemical compounds with high abundances contained amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, organic acids, and lignans. PLS-DA showed that the cocoon components were significantly different among the wild silkworm and two domestic silkworm strains Dazao and Haoyue. Proline, leucine/isoleucine and phenylalanine showed significantly higher abundances in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain than in those of wild silkworm and domestic silkworm Haoyue strain. The flavonoid secondary metabolites are abundant in the Dazao cocoon, including quercetin, isoquercetin, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O- rutinoside, and kaempferol. The other secondary metabolites, alkaloids, terpenes and lignans, showed higher abundances in the wild silkworm cocoon than in the domestic silkworm cocoon, including neurine, candicine, pilocarpidine, artemisiifolin, eupassopin, and eudesobovatol. By exposing cocoons to UV light and observing the green fluorescence of flavonoids, we found that Dazao cocoon had the most flavonoids, and Haoyue cocoon had least flavonoids and wild silkworm cocoon had mediate flavonoids. Alkaloids and organic acids are good anti-insect and antimicrobial agents, which have high abundance in the wild silkworm cocoon and could enhance the defense ability of wild silkworm cocoon. Flavonoids are abundant in the cocoon of domestic silkworm Dazao strain, which the main factors are leading to the yellow-green cocoon of Dazao.

鉴定并比较野蚕茧与家蚕茧的化学成分对于理解家蚕的驯化具有重要的意义。利用高温高压结合甲醇-水提取的方法获得蚕茧中的化学成分,利用UHPLC-MS 技术对野蚕、家蚕大造品种和皓月品种3 种蚕茧丝中的小分子成分进行鉴定和比较分析。通过阳离子模式和阴离子模式的UHPLC-MS 获得了野蚕、大造和皓月蚕茧丝的代谢指纹图谱,对鉴定到的高丰度化合物进行注释,发现其中包括了氨基酸、黄酮、生物碱、萜类、有机酸和木脂素等成分。PLS-DA 的得分图表明,野蚕、家蚕大造品种和皓月品种的3 种蚕茧的代谢组存在显著差异。发现脯氨酸、亮氨酸/异亮氨酸和苯丙氨酸在大造茧中的含量显著高于在野蚕和皓月茧中的含量,黄酮类植物次生代谢物在大造茧中的含量显著提高,包括槲皮素、异槲皮素、槲皮素-3-O-槐糖苷、槲皮素-3-O-L-鼠李糖苷、槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷和山奈酚;而神经碱、白桥楼碱、毛果芸香次碱、美洲豚草内酯、线叶泽兰素和中缅木莲素等生物碱、萜类和木脂素类的植物次生代谢物在野蚕茧中的含量显著高于在家蚕茧中的含量。在紫外光的激发下观察黄酮的绿色荧光发现家蚕大造茧中的黄酮含量最高,家蚕皓月茧中的黄酮含量最低,而野蚕茧中的黄酮含量居中。生物碱和有机酸是良好的抗虫抗菌剂,它们在野蚕茧中的含量较高,能够提高野蚕茧的防护能力。黄酮类物质在家蚕大造茧中的含量较高,是导致家蚕大造茧呈黄绿色的主要原因。.

Keywords: alkaloid; cocoon; domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori); flavonoid; liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer; wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina).

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bombyx*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Flavonoids
  • Mass Spectrometry

Substances

  • Flavonoids