Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an important cause of chronic kidney disease, but its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to compare inflammatory biomarkers in urine samples of SCA children with and without albuminuria, and to explore correlations with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) molecules. A cross-sectional study of 213 children selected from the Minas Gerais state cohort were assigned to two groups: Group 1-89 children with SCA who had albuminuria; Group 2-124 children with SCA and normal albuminuria matched by age and sex with group 1. A subset of 89 children was prospectively followed for a median time of 1.1 year. Inflammatory biomarkers (chemokines and cytokines) in urine were measured using cytometric beads array, and RAS molecules were measured by ELISA. Children with albuminuria had significantly higher urinary levels of IP-10/CXCL10, MCP-1/CCL2, MIG/CXCL9, IL-8/CXCL8, IL-12p70, TNF, IL-10, and IL-6 than patients with normal albuminuria. In the correlation analysis, albumin/creatinine ratio was significantly and positively correlated with IP-10/CXCL10, MCP-1/CCL2, MIG/CXCL9, IL-8/CXCL8, TNF, IL-10, and IL-6. Significant correlations were found between inflammatory and RAS molecules. In the prospective analysis, cumulative risk of persistent albuminuria was higher for children with urinary levels of IP-10/CXCL10 or IL-6 above the 50th percentile. Our data showed that inflammatory markers and RAS molecules might contribute to the occurrence of albuminuria in children with SCA, suggesting that both pathways interact in sickle cell nephropathy.
Keywords: Biomarker; Inflammation; Nephropathy; Renin-angiotensin system; Sickle cell anemia.
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