Clinically feasible method for assessing leukocyte rheology in whole blood

Heart Vessels. 2020 Feb;35(2):268-277. doi: 10.1007/s00380-019-01486-y. Epub 2019 Aug 23.


This study reports a novel method for assessment of leukocyte rheological activation with a new designed microchannel array chip to mimic the human microvascular network for microchannel array flow analysis (MCFAN). Study subjects were 79 healthy volunteers and 42 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 36 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Using the anticoagulants heparin and ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA)-2Na which inhibits platelets and leukocytes by chelating Ca2+, we were able to quantify leukocyte rheological activation by the subtraction of passage time of blood treated with both heparin and EDTA-2Na from that of blood treated with heparin only. We confirmed that passage times of whole blood with heparin + EDTA-2Na were always shorter than those of whole blood with only heparin in healthy subjects and patients with DM or ACS under suction pressures of - 30 cmH2O. There was a significant correlation between delta whole blood passage time {(heparin tube) - (EDTA-2Na + heparin)} and serum levels of myeloperoxidase and adhesive leukocyte number, respectively, even in blood from patients with DM or ACS, who suffered from inflammation. In conclusion we have developed a clinically feasible method for assessing leukocyte rheological activation in whole blood in ex vivo.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome; Diabetes mellitus; Leukocyte; Microcirculation; Rheology.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / blood
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Acute Coronary Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Adhesion*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Hemorheology*
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lab-On-A-Chip Devices
  • Leukocytes* / metabolism
  • Male
  • Microcirculation
  • Microfluidic Analytical Techniques* / instrumentation
  • Middle Aged
  • Peroxidase / blood
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Rheology


  • Biomarkers
  • MPO protein, human
  • Peroxidase