Cratering response during droplet impacts on granular beds

Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2019 Aug 28;42(8):111. doi: 10.1140/epje/i2019-11877-8.


This experimental work focuses on the cratering response of granular layers induced by liquid droplet impacts. A droplet impact results in severe granular layer deformation, crater formation and deposits in the vicinity of the impact center. High-precision three-dimensional imaging of the granular layer surface revealed important characteristics of liquid impacts on granular matter, such as singular asymmetric deformations of the layer. Our analysis also demonstrated that the impact energy and the granular packing, and its inherent compressibility, are not the unique parameters controlling the bed response, for which granular fraction heterogeneities may induce strong variations. Such heterogeneous conditions primarily influence the magnitude but not the dynamics of liquid impacts on granular layers. Finally, a general equation can be used to relate the enery released during cratering to both the impact energy and the compressibility of the granular matter. However, our results do not support any transition triggered by the compaction-dilation regime. Hence, higly detailed numerical simulations could provide considerable insights regarding the remaining questions related to heterogeneous packing conditions and its influence over the bulk compressibility and the compaction-dilation phase transition.

Keywords: Flowing Matter: Granular Materials.