Population reference ranges of urinary endogenous sulfate steroids concentrations and ratios as complement to the steroid profile in sports antidoping

Steroids. 2019 Dec:152:108477. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.108477. Epub 2019 Aug 22.


The population based Steroid Profile (SP) ratio of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) has been considered as a biomarker approach to detect testosterone abuse in '80s. The contemporary Antidoping Laboratories apply the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Technical Document (TD) for Endogenous Androgenic Anabolic Steroids (EAAS) in the analysis of SP during their screening. The SP Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) adaptive model uses the concentrations of the total of free and glucuronide conjugated forms of six EAASs concentrations and ratios measured by GC/MS. In the Antidoping Lab Qatar (ADLQ), the routine LC/MS screening method was used to quantitatively estimate the sulfate conjugated EAAS in the same analytical run as for the rest qualitative analytes. Seven sulfate EAAS were quantified for a number of routine antidoping male and female urine samples during screening. Concentrations, statistical parameters and selected ratios for the 6 EAAS, the 6 sulfate EAAS and 29 proposed ratios of concentrations from both EAAS and sulfate EAAS, which potentially used as SP ABP biomarkers, population reference limits and distributions have been estimated after the GC/MSMS analysis for EAAS and LC/Orbitrap/MS analysis for sulfate EAAS.

Keywords: Endogenous steroids ratios; Endogenous sulfate steroids; Population reference limits; Population reference ranges; Sports antidoping; Steroid profile.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Athletes
  • Female
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Sports*
  • Steroids / urine*
  • Substance Abuse Detection*
  • Sulfates / urine*


  • Steroids
  • Sulfates