Associations between major dietary patterns and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in two urban midsized cities in Argentina

Nutrition. Nov-Dec 2019;67-68:110521. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2019.06.002. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Abstract

Objective: We examined whether dietary patterns (DPS) are associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) markers in an Argentinian population.

Research methods & procedures: The sample in this cross-sectional study was derived from 1,983 subjects from two mid-sized cities in Argentina who were involved in the CESCAS I Study. To define DP, a food-frequency questionnaire was applied. In a subsample randomly selected from the primary cohort, serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble E selectin (sSELE) were determined. Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relation between each quartile of DP adherence score and ED markers (Q1 lowest adherence; Q4 highest adherence).

Results: Three DPs were identified: Traditional (TDP), Prudent (PDP), and Convenience and processed (CDP). TDP was characterized by higher intake of refined grains, red meat, whole fat dairy products, vegetable oils, and "mate", a traditional South American infused drink; PDP was characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and legumes; and CDP consisted mainly of processed meat, snacks, pizza, and "empanadas", a stuffed bread served baked or fried. Lower scores (Q2, Q3) in TDP were inversely associated with concentrations of sSELE (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). In PDP, higher scores were inversely associated with hs-CRP, whereas lower scores showed a positive relation with sSELE (P < 0.05). Contrariwise, higher scores in CDP were directly associated with sSELE concentrations (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Adherence for each DP identified is differentially related to ED markers in the studied population.

Keywords: Argentina; Diet; Endothelium; Markers.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Argentina
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cities
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Diet Surveys
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Biomarkers